The Recovery and Resilience Facility is a part of NextGenerationEU, which funds reforms and investments within EU Member States made from the beginning of the pandemic in February 2020 until December 31, 2026. Countries can access financing up to a predetermined maximum limit. To qualify for assistance from this facility, national governments must have submitted national recovery and resilience plans. These plans detail the reforms and investments that are intended to be executed by the end of 2026, complete with clear milestones and targets. The plans are required to allocate a minimum of 37% of their budget to environmentally friendly initiatives and 20% to digital projects. It is worth noting that the Recovery and Resilience Facility operates on a performance-based model. This means that the Commission disburses funds to each country only when they have met the agreed-upon milestones and targets related to the implementation of the reforms and investments outlined in their plan. The national recovery and resilience plans for the EU Member States have been structured in the following manner:
- The plan consists of 32 investments and 27 reforms, which will be supported by €3.46 billion in grants.
- The reforms and investments are directed at overcoming obstacles to achieve enduring and sustainable economic growth. Austria’s plan will involve reforming the tax system to make it more environmentally friendly and socially inclusive. Additionally, it will boost digitalization, promote climate protection through emission-free transportation, renovation, and energy-efficient initiatives, and enhance education and training nationwide.
- The Czech plan consists of 91 investment measures and 33 reforms, which will be supported by €7 billion in grants.
- 42% of the plan will support climate objectives and 22% of the plan will foster the digital transition.
- Czechia’s strategy will promote the adoption of digital technology, work to preserve the environment by implementing extensive energy-efficient upgrades, expanding renewable energy sources, enhancing railway infrastructure, and promoting sustainable transportation. Additionally, it will encompass significant reforms in the fields of education, healthcare, and business conditions.
- The Danish plan consists of 33 investments and 6 reforms. They will be supported by €1.5 billion in grants.
- 59% of the plan will support climate objectives and 25% of the plan will foster the digital transition.
- The reforms and investments are divided into 7 components: Strengthening the resilience of the healthcare sector; Green transition of the agriculture and the environment; Energy efficiency, green heating and CCS; Green tax reform; Sustainable road transport; Digitalisation; Green research and development
- Finland’s recovery and resilience plan consists of €2.1 billion in grants.
- 50% of the plan’s total allocation for reforms and investments supports climate objectives and 27% of the plan’s total allocation for reforms and investments supports digital objectives.
- The plan consists of four pillars: 1) A green transition will support structural adjustment of the economy and underpin a carbon- neutral welfare society 2) Digitalisation and a digital economy will strengthen productivity and make services available to all 3) Raising the employment rate and skill levels will accelerate sustainable growth 4) Access to health and social services will be improved and their cost-effectiveness enhanced
- The French plan was updated on the 14th of July 2023, which introduced reforms and investments to address REPowerEU objectives in order to reduce the reliance on fossil fuels.
- The French plan consists of 24 reforms and 73 investments, which will be supported by €40.3 billion in grants.
- 49,5% of the plan will support climate objectives and 21,6% will foster the digital transition.
- The reforms target objectives to achieving long-term, sustainable growth, while investments are aimed at expediting the shift towards a more sustainable, low-carbon, and climate-resilient economy. This includes supporting the digital transformation of all economic players, including public entities, and enhancing the resilience of the French economy through investments in the healthcare sector and skills development, spanning higher education and lifelong learning.
- Germany’s recovery and resilience plan will be financed by €25.6 billion in grants.
- 42% of the plan’s total allocation for reforms and investments supports climate objectives and 52% supports the digital objectives.
- The plan has 6 priorities: Climate Policy and Energy Transition; Digitalization of the economy and infrastructure; Digitisation of education; Strengthening Social Participation; Strengthening a Pandemic-Resilient Health System; Modern Public Administration and Reducing Barriers to Investment.
- The plan consists of 106 investment measures and 68 reforms. They will be supported by €17.77 billion in grants and €12.73 billion in loans.
- 5% of the plan will support climate objectives and 23.3% of the plan will foster the digital transition.
- The reforms aim to overcome obstacles hindering long-term, sustainable growth by reinforcing legal principles and combatting corruption. Simultaneously, investments are directed towards the green and digital transitions, while also addressing issues related to skills and health.
- Hungary’s recovery and resilience plan is set to be financed by €5.8 billion in grants, conditioned on the full and effective implementation of 27 milestones on the rule of law, judicial independence, anti-corruption, and protecting the Union’s budget.
- 48,1% of the plan’s total allocation for reforms and investments supports climate objectives and 29,8% of the plan’s total allocation for reforms and investments supports the digital objectives.
- Upon Hungary’s achievement of the 27 milestones, the RRF funding will be directed towards advancing renewable energy adoption, promoting sustainable transportation, enhancing digital literacy and education, and modernizing the healthcare system. Furthermore, the plan’s execution will not only enhance the rule of law in Hungary but also ensure a comprehensive set of actions to combat corruption, reform public procurement, and safeguard judicial independence. Fulfilment of these rule of law reforms, along with specific audit and control reforms, is a prerequisite for any disbursement of funds to Hungary.
- The plan consists of 132 investments and 58 reforms, which will be supported by €68.9billion in grants and €122.6 billion in loans;
- 5% of the plan will support climate objectives and 25.1% of the plan will support the digital transition.
- In the area of climate and environmental policies, Italy wants to focus on the need for improvement in the management of waste and water resources, sustainable mobility and strengthened energy efficiency of buildings. Digital focus areas include improving the digital skills of the population and workforce, increasing the digitalisation of businesses and fostering the offer of digital public services and accelerating the implementation of key e-government projects. Key macro-economic challenges for the Italian economy that will be prioritised include sluggish productivity and economic growth, high structural unemployment and low labour market participation (notably of women and youth) and persisting social and territorial disparities.
- The plan consists of 60 investments and 25 reforms, which will be supported by €1.8 billion in grants.
- 38% of the plan will support climate objectives and 21% of the plan will support the digital transition.
- The reforms aim to tackle obstacles for long-term sustainability, with investments directed towards environmentally-friendly and technological advancements, promoting social inclusivity encompassing healthcare, social safety nets, and regional disparities. Additionally, there’s a focus on enhancing skills such as digital literacy, adult education, and higher learning, boosting productivity through research, innovation, and business investment support. Certain reforms also strive to enhance administrative capabilities, including tax administration, public procurement, and the judicial system.
- The plan consists of 30 measures, covering investments and reforms, which will be supported by €2.22 billion in grants.
- 8% of the plan will support climate objectives and 31.5% of the plan will foster the digital transition.
- The reforms target obstacles to achieve enduring and sustainable economic growth, with investments aimed at tackling shared European challenges through embracing the green and digital transition. Specifically, Lithuania’s strategy will expedite changes and investments in the education and healthcare sectors. Additionally, it will channel funds into more eco-friendly electricity generation and energy storage, support environmentally friendly transportation, facilitate the deployment of 5G technology, and enhance social safety nets.
- The plan consists of 28 investments and 21 reforms, which will be supported by €4.7 billion in grants.
- 48% of the plan’s total allocation for reforms and investments support climate objectives and 26% will support the digital transition.
- The Netherlands’ plan will stimulate renewable energy sources, energy efficiency and sustainable mobility, foster digitalisation, improve the labour and housing market, strengthen healthcare services and combat tax avoidance and money laundering. The plan also includes measures that contribute to the REPowerEU objectives to rapidly reduce dependence on Russian fossil fuels and fast forward the green transition.
- The plan consists of 49 reforms and 53 investments. They will be supported by an estimated €23.9 billion in grants and €11.5 billion in loans.
- 7% of the plan will support the green transition and 21.3% of the plan will support the digital transition.
- The reforms target bottlenecks to lasting sustainable growth, while investments are addressing the decarbonisation of the Polish economy, the acceleration of the digital transition and the reinforcement of Poland’s economic and social resilience. The plan also aims to strengthen essential aspects of the independence of judiciary.
- Portugal’s recovery and resilience facility plan was updated on 17th of October 2023 to also include a REPowerEU chapter in order to reduce the reliance on fossil fuels.
- The plan consists of 117 investment streams and 44 reforms, which will be supported by €16.3 billion in grants and €9 billion in loans.
- 41% of the plan will support climate objectives and 21% of the plan will foster the digital transition.
- The reforms target hurdles for lasting and sustainable growth, while investments are directed at improving productivity and potential growth by addressing barriers such as regulated professions, human capital gaps (including digital skills and education), and enhancing public financial management, administration, and the judicial system. Other investments focus on health infrastructure, youth employment, energy sector decarbonization, building energy efficiency, sustainable transport, green enterprise transition, and digitalization. The plan also proposes reforms to enhance social protection, the tax system, circular economy, waste management, and public administration’s digital transition in Portugal.
- The plan consists of 107 investment measures and 64 reforms, which will be supported by an estimated €14.24 billion in grants and €14.94 billion in loans.
- 41% of the plan will support the green transition and 5% of the plan will support the digital transition.
- The reforms aim to promote lasting and sustainable economic growth by addressing various challenges. These include substantial investments in green initiatives, such as sustainable transportation, building renovations, biodiversity protection, industry decarbonization, and renewable energy. Romania’s plan also focuses on digitalizing public services, improving healthcare and education, addressing regional disparities. It additionally involves significant reforms and investments to bolster public finances, the pension system, administrative efficiency, combat corruption, and support business, research, and innovation.
- The Slovak plan was updated the 14th of July 2023 to also include reforms and investments that address REPowerEU objectives. The objective of the REPowerEU component of the Slovak plan is to reduce the overall dependence on fossil fuels imports from Russia, increase energy security and accelerate the transition to renewables.
- The plan consists of 64 investment streams and 70 reforms, which will be supported by €6.4 billion in grants.
- 46% of the plan will support climate objectives and 21% of the plan will support the digital transition.
- The investments are focused on speeding up the shift towards a more sustainable, low-carbon and resilient economy. They aim to streamline the digital transformation of both businesses and society and strengthen social resilience by enhancing the quality of education and healthcare systems.
- The plan consists of 112 investments and 102 reforms, which will be supported by €69.5 billion in grants.
- 40% of the plan will support the climate objectives and 28% of the plan will foster the digital transition
- The reforms tackle obstacles hindering lasting sustainable and Investments aim to expedite the shift toward a sustainable, low-carbon, and climate-resilient economy, harness the full potential of digital transformation, and promote social cohesion. The plan also seeks to enhance connectivity within the country, improve labour market performance, foster innovation in the economy, and increase the efficiency and sustainability of public spending.
- The Swedish plan consists of 15 reforms and 12 investments, which will be supported by €3.3 billion in grants. 44% of the plan will support climate objectives and 21% of the plan will support the digital transition.
- The reforms and investments are divided into 5 focus areas: The green recovery; Education, training and transition; Improving conditions for the demographic challenge and ensuring the integrity of the financial system; Expansion of broadband, digitalisation of public administration and research; Investments for growth and housing construction.
Further information can be found on the Commission’s website.
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